Thymosin Alpha-1 Guide: Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects

Thymosin Alpha-1, a potent immune system modulator, is being widely studied now for its effects on strengthening the immune system. This peptide was also well-researched during COVID-19 as a potential remedy to combat infections. Read more to find out about Thymosin Alpha-1 and what it offers!

Our body responds to various infections/diseases by generating an immune response that eventually prevents us from getting sick – or rather, helps us recover early. However, in certain scenarios, the body’s immune system is too weak to counter foreign particles and requires additional assistance.

This is where peptides like Thymosin Alpha-1 come into play. After early clinical trials showed positive results, it has been recognized as an immune-enhancing, modulating, and restoring agent (1). Thymosin Alpha-1 is, thus, claimed to expedite the healing process by boosting your immune system.

In this detailed overview of Thymosin Alpha-1, I have made sure to include all the available evidence from the current scientific literature and some anecdotal evidence to help you decide whether you should use this peptide to boost your immune system or not. 

Warning: The content on and the information included in this article is intended for entertainment and informational purposes only. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Prior to buying anything, check that it is compliant where you live with your current government laws. We frequently mention research chemicals that are not made for human consumption. Therefore, before purchasing any product for personal use, consult with your doctor or healthcare provider first.

Key Takeaways 

  • Thymosin Alpha-1 is extracted from the thymus gland and enhances the immune system by stimulating the T cells to mature. 
  • Thymosin Alpha-1 helps to strengthen the immune system, acts as a potent antioxidant, and reduces inflammation. 
  • Thymosin Alpha-1 may play a critical role in auto-immune disorders like RA. 
  • Thymosin Alpha-1 also played a role in recovery from COVID-19. 

 What is Thymosin Alpha-1?

Thymosin Alpha-1 is an endogenous peptide that is originally isolated from the thymus gland and consists of 28 amino acids (2). Due to its immune-enhancing properties, many efforts have been made for its extraction and purification. This includes extraction from Thymosin fraction 5, which was first isolated from calf thymuses.

The synthetic form of Thymosin Alpha-1, Thymalfasin, is produced in laboratories through solid-phase synthesis. On the other hand, some advancements in recombinant gene technology are also being made.

Thymosin Alpha Summary

Thymosin Alpha-1

Thymosin Alpha-1, also known as Tα1 or Zadaxin, is a peptide that occurs naturally in the thymus gland, a crucial organ of the immune system. It plays a vital role in the regulation of immune responses. Thymosin Alpha-1 is a synthetic version of a naturally occurring peptide and has been extensively studied for its immunomodulatory properties.

Some studies have indicated that Thymosin Alpha-1 might have anti-tumor effects by enhancing the immune system’s ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells. It is being investigated for its potential use in cancer therapy, either alone or in combination with other treatments.

Thymosin Alpha-1 is generally considered safe when used as directed. However, like any medication, it may cause side effects in some individuals. Common side effects may include injection site reactions, flu-like symptoms, or mild allergic reactions. Serious side effects are rare but can occur.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Overview

⭐️ Top Benefits: Thymosin Alpha-1 works predominantly to enhance our immune system
🧪 Form: Injectable liquid
⌛️ Max Time Used: 10 – 20 Weeks
💰 Average Cost: $109.99
❤️‍🩹 Side Effects: Allergic reaction
☢️ Dangers: Allergic reaction
📚 Best Peptide Stack: HGH / CJC-1295 / Ipamorelin
Men/Women: Men and women
➡️ Go to the Full review

  • Immunomodulation
  • Antiviral properties
  • Potential anti-tumor effects
  • Possibility of injection site reactions
  • Potential for flu-like symptoms

How Does Thymosin Alpha-1 Work?

Thymosin Alpha-1 works predominantly to enhance our immune system, and it achieves this by mediating a lot of immunological processes at cellular levels. 

While the mechanism of action may sound complex, I’ll try my best to make it look simpler to you. 

Toll-like receptors are important mediators of immune responses and play an important role in the innate/natural immunity of the body. Thymosin Alpha-1 acts as a toll-like receptor (TLR-9, TLR-2) agonist of the antigen-presenting cells and thus constitutes the first line of defense system (1).

Another way through which it exerts its immune modulating property is by increasing levels of interferon alpha and gamma (IFN-a, IFN-y) (3). IFN-a and y play a critical role in combating viruses attacking our bodies.

Thymosin Alpha-1 directly activates natural killer cells and amplifies T-cells maturation. These cells then aid in the activation of other immune system cells and the ensuing recognition and killing of infected cells.

Thymosin Alpha-1 is also seen to downregulate the activity of IL-1b and tumor necrosis factor-a, thus inducing an anti-inflammatory response.

This peptide acts upon superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes responsible for handling the body’s oxidative stress. This ultimately protects the body from undue oxidative damage (4).

Benefits of Thymosin Alpha-1

Clinical trials conducted on both mice and human subjects to evaluate the efficacy of Thymosin Alpha-1 have yielded promising results. These results can be easily assessed to understand the numerous benefits of this peptide.

Since it reinforces the body’s immune system, most of its benefits are thus visible in disorders that result in an immunocompromised state – with HIV patients bearing the greatest risk. Thymosin Alpha-1 not only strengthens the weak immune system but also reduces both chronic inflammation and acute inflammation (5).

Clinical trials done on patients with Hepatitis B virus suggested that Thymosin Alpha-1 plays a critical role in disease remission and cessation (6). This significantly reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in both chronic hepatitis B and C patients.

Difference between treatment group and control group after Thymosin Alpha-1 injection in infected patients by Hepatitis B virus

During the covid-19 pandemic, Thymosin Alpha-1 was also used to treat infected patients because of their declining health and vulnerable immune system. It was observed that this peptide greatly reduced the mortality of severe coronavirus cases by reversing T-cell exhaustion in lymphopenic patients (7).

A person’s body is vulnerable to different infections following a transplant of any kind. Similarly, even though the white blood cell count is normal after a bone marrow transplant, the immune system is still recovering and at risk of developing infections. Thymosin Alpha-1 specifically aims to reduce the instances of such infections in these patients (8). 

This peptide also comes into play in autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, in which unregulated immune cells attack the body’s healthy cells – resulting in inflammation of tissue and joints. Thymosin Alpha-1 modulates the activity of immune cells in these patients, and thus alters the severity of this disease.

Effects of Thymosin Alpha-1 on key inflammatory processes

Lastly, a principal benefit of Thymosin Alpha-1 is for patients undergoing therapies for oncological problems. For example, patients are prone to infections and toxicity after undergoing chemotherapy due to a feeble immune system. This peptide thus counteracts the effects of chemotherapy and improves the quality of life in these patients. 

Even though clinical trials provide data in favor of the use of Thymosin Alpha-1, more evidence is still required to develop a substantial understanding of this drug.

Thymosin Alpha-1 is therefore not approved by the FDA yet (9).

FDA, however, has granted Thymalfasin a synthetic version of Thymosin Alpha-1, ‘orphan drug designation.’ This provides incentives to research the drug as a potential treatment for rare conditions, including malignant melanoma, chronic active hepatitis B, DiGeorge anomaly with immune defects, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Who Should Use Thymosin Alpha-1?

Taking into account the anti-inflammatory and immune-system modulating properties of this peptide, it can be used in diseases that compromise the immune system.

This means anyone suffering from chronic Hepatitis B and C, HIV, rheumatoid arthritis, and different kinds of tumors and malignancies can surely use it. 

It can also be used by patients undergoing chemotherapy and those who are receiving vaccines, as it is said to work as a vaccine adjuvant which helps in creating a stronger immune response.

Forms of Thymosin Alpha-1

Thymosin Alpha-1 is available in the form of injections because they not only have a better potency but are also quick to administer and thus hassle-free.

Nasal sprays are also available in the market for people afraid of injections. 

How To Use Thymosin Alpha-1?

Thymosin Alpha-1 is mostly found in injection and is administered through a subcutaneous route, usually to a fleshy part of the body – typically to the stomach or abdominal area. 

Note that it should not be given intravenously.

For people who are afraid of needles, a nasal spray is also available, which has equal efficacy to that of an injection and provides a painless way of administering the drug.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Dosage

Considering the numerous effects and usages of Thymosin Alpha-1, its dosage is highly based on the type of disorder it is being used for and may vary from person to person. 

A standard single dosage ranges from 0.8 mg to 6.4 mg, while multiple doses range from 1.6mg to 16mg (2).

The recommended dosage for Hepatitis B patients is 1.6mg twice weekly for 6-12 months. 

For patients with cancer, 1.6mg of Thymalfasin is administered with varying schedules for a period of six months.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Cycling

Standard single doses of 0.8mg to 6.4mg can be administered twice a week subcutaneously for up to six months, while multiple doses ranging from 1.6mg to 16mg can be taken for 5-7 days.

Cancer patients also choose to take Thymosin Alpha-1 in between their chemotherapy sessions for 6-12 months. 

Since studies done on animals show no adverse reactions on doses that are 800 times the suggested clinical dose, people choose to continue taking Thymosin Alpha-1  for at least 6 months.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Stacks

Because Thymosin Alpha-1 is largely used for medicinal purposes and not therapeutically, it is often not stacked with any other recreational peptides.

However, if you are using it for any specific medical condition, you may augment Thymosin Alpha-1 with other conventional therapy for synergistic benefits. 

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Thymosin Alpha-1 User Reviews

Because Thymosin Alpha-1 offers such specific medicinal benefits, I saw a lot of precise yet mixed opinions on it. 

One of the users said, 

“Late to comment, but FWIW I swear it saved me from the debilitating fatigue I was experiencing after Covid. It also resolved a case of pityriasis rosea.”

– a user on Reddit

“So, I give TA1 as a prophylactic often. TA1 is not “strengthening” the immune system. It is making it work more efficiently.”

– a doctor on Reddit

Thymosin Alpha-1 Side Effects

Several studies conducted to test the efficacy of Thymosin Alpha-1 have deemed it a safe peptide that can be administered. The good thing is that even at large doses, no side effects have appeared as of yet, which ensures that this peptide is very well tolerated.

Some but few common side effects may stem from injecting a vial of  Thymosin Alpha-1 but not from the peptide itself. This may include skin irritation, redness, discomfort, or swelling at the site where the needle punctures the skin. 

However, these side effects can be easily avoided if dealt with under supervision.

Where can I buy Thymosin Alpha-1?

It is very important to make your peptide purchase from an authentic online store. And one of the top peptide sellers in the market that I recommend is BioTech Peptide. 

5mg Thymosin Alpha-1 by BioTech Peptides

BioTech peptide offers 5mg of Thymosin Alpha-1 at a price of $75. 

BioTech peptides are at the top, with their products being >99% pure. They also offer discounts of 5% or 10% depending on the fact that how much quantity you can purchase.

They have a same-day shipping facility with a 30-day money-back guarantee as well as extremely strict quality control checks.

Perhaps what really amazes me is their customer reviews. They have a 5.0 rating with extremely satisfied clients, thus giving them an edge in selling peptides.

  • 99% purity guaranteed
  • Positive customer reviews
  • Little pricey

Thymosin Alpha-1 vs. Other Peptides

Thymosin Alpha-1 vs. Thymosin beta 4

Both these peptides are derived from Thymosin fraction 5 and work to accelerate the process of recovering from a disease. But the mechanisms that they use to do so differ largely.

Thymosin alpha 1 modulates the immune system and helps it in countering a pathogen, whereas Thymosin beta 4 promotes angiogenesis and, thus, wound repair in sites that may have been damaged. 

While there are no apparent side effects of Thymosin Alpha-1, people using Thymosin beta 4 may suffer from tiredness or lethargy.

Thymosin Alpha-1 vs. BPC-157

Thymosin Alpha-1 has varied and numerous effects on the body’s immune system, which are proven through numerous clinical researches. 

The FDA also approves it for research and treatment of rare conditions, while BPC-157 lacks the approval required for usage.

Is Thymosin Alpha-1 Legit?

Taking into account the immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Thymosin Alpha-1, it is safe to conclude that this peptide does wonders for people who are battling any kind of immune-compromising disease.

Considering that it’s highly tolerable with very few negative side effects, it can be deemed a ‘user-friendly’ peptide, significantly raising the quality of life for many patients.

Further dedicated clinical trials involving Thymosin Alpha-1 will tell us more about its potency and efficacy and allow for widespread use.

FAQs on Thymosin Alpha-1

Does thymosin suppress the immune system?

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a natural immune-modulating peptide that helps with chronic and acute problems. It is used to treat disease, allergies, arthritis, infections, and inflammation and proactively boost your immune system.

How do you inject Thymosin Alpha-1?

When the thymosin is mixed, use an insulin needle and withdraw 1/2 ml of the fluid. Thymosin is a subcutaneous injection, namely, just below the skin. After injecting the thymosin, store it in the refrigerator. Use a clean needle each time you inject thymosin.

What are the benefits of Thymosin Alpha-1?

By targeting TLRs, Thymosin Alpha-1 can stimulate the adaptive immune response, which is essential for fighting viral, bacterial, and fungal infections and cancers and stimulating posterior humoral immunity. 

What happens if you have too much thymosin?

An overproduction of thymosin would increase the production of T cells leading to an overproduction of lymphocytes leading to lymphocytosis.

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Kumar Rathi

Kumar Rathi | Writer

Kartik is a medical student with a passion for anatomy and physiology. He writes research papers, articles and blogs to raise awareness and also has a strong interest in teaching and public speaking. Aspiring to be a successful cardiologist, Kartik believes in connecting with people on a personal level and is an expert in peptides.

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9 months ago

Thank you for this article, Kumar – really good information here.
Something I am curious about – I had read that the half-life for TA-1 was 2 hours, it would seem like a lower dosage taken daily would make more sense than a higher dosage taken every few days. What is your take on this?

4 months ago

I have purchased 5mg of Thymosin Alpha 1. To reconstitute
1) how much bac water must I add
2) what is the number that I draw into the injection that hold 1ml.
Basic I know. But please humour me on this.xx

Daniel Louwrens BSc PT
3 months ago
Reply to  Frank

1. You can add 100ml, you can add 1,000ml, you can add 10,000ml. It does not matter. The concentration per ml just decreases. So, unless you want to inject a liter of fluid (DO NOT DO THIS), then stick to 1ml.
2. I have no idea because you did not give me your dosage.

shawnett dennis
shawnett dennis
1 month ago

Where can I buy the nasal spray ?

Thymosin Alpha-1

Chemical Structure

Mechanism of Action

Thymosin Alpha-1 mediates immunological processes and supports the immune system of the body. It does so by amplifying T-cell maturation and by activating natural killer cells. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory substance by regulating the activity of tumor-necrosis factor and IL-B. It may also help the body in handling oxidative stress by acting upon superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.

Class of Compound


Street Names

Thymosin Alpha-1, Ta1, Thymalfasin


Strengthens immune system , Anti-inflammatory agent , Anti-oxidant

Side Effects and Dangers

Localized skin irritation , Redness/discomfort , Lack of extensive research


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