Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Guide

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is released from the pancreas, improves GIT health, and acts as a potential treatment option for many GIT inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease. Read the full review to know about what VIP has to offer as a whole!

Compound Summary

Class of Compound

Peptide

Mechanism of Action

VIP is an endogenous peptide which is produced by immune cells as well as the cells of the digestive tract. VIP activates phospholipase C and protein kinase C in macrophages through which anti-inflammatory actions are brought about in the body. It increases the production of nitric oxide in the body and thus acts as a potent vasodilator of blood vessels. It also has antimicrobial activity and the ability to regulate pancreatic enzymes which protects the gut epithelium.

Street Names

Vasoactive Intestinal peptide, VIP, Aviptadil

Effects

Anti-inflammatory , Vasodilator ,Maintains digestive health

Side Effects and Dangers

Migraines , Nausea ,Dizziness

Chemical Structure

Have you ever had a bad stomach ache or problems digesting any food you have eaten? 

If the answer is yes, then it’s possible that your gut health may have been compromised. This could be either due to the ingestion of a bacteria or a disturbed internal physiological balance!

One peptide that can help you to maintain this physiological balance is the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). It originates from the intestine and maintains the optimum functioning and health of the digestive tract.

It does this by regulating peristalsis and exerting its anti-microbial properties on the gut. Other than this, it also serves as a vasodilator, immune modulator, and secretagogue. Thus it wouldn’t be wrong to claim that this peptide is pleiotropic in nature.

In this detailed review of VIP, I will make sure to describe its effects so that you have an idea regarding the importance of this peptide and why it is necessary.

Warning: The content on Muscleandbrawn.com and the information included in this article is intended for entertainment and informational purposes only. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Prior to buying anything, check that it is compliant where you live with your current government laws.

Key Takeaways

  • VIP is mainly released from the pancreas and central nervous system. 
  • VIP exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and vasodilatory effects. 
  • VIP enhances your GUT health dramatically. 
  • BioTech peptides is one the best places to buy VIP. 

What is Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)?

VIP is an endogenous neuropeptide that was first isolated from the intestine 30 years ago. It contains 28 amino acids and was later localized to both central and peripheral nervous systems. (1)

VIP belongs to the glucagon/secretin superfamily and is mainly released from the pancreas, intestine, and central nervous system. Given that it is widely distributed and secreted in the body, its effects are thus pleiotropic.

How Does VIP Work?

Since VIP affects the workings of more than one system in the body, its mechanism of action may be overwhelming to grasp. But don’t worry, as I will list them in simple and elaborate terms.

The three known receptors of VIP in the human body have been classified as VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1. VPAC1 receptor is mostly found on immune system cells such as macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, microglia, and mast cells.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Guide
Fig 1. Effects on VIP on various immune checkpoints 

Thus, it makes sense that VIP is able to exert its effect on these cells by binding to the VPAC1 receptor. The immune system cells then activate the adenylate cyclase pathway, which modulates the immune system by reducing inflammation.

PAC1, which is another receptor of VIP, activates phospholipase C and protein kinase C in macrophages which is the major signaling pathway from anti-inflammatory actions. (2)

A study reports that mice that were deficient in VPAC2 and PAC1 receptors were more susceptible to inflammatory disorders, which signifies the role of VIP in the modulating immune response.  (3)

As the name itself suggests, VIP is a vasodilator that is 50-100 times more potent than acetylcholine. It increases the production of nitric oxide, which then induces the dilation of blood vessels.

Research done on animals also suggests that if VIP is injected into coronary arteries, not only does it decrease coronary vascular resistance, but it also increases coronary blood flow. This ensures that the heart is kept well-perfused with blood at all times. (4)

One of the main functions of VIP within the small intestine and large intestine is the relaxation of smooth muscle. It also relaxes the sphincter of Oddi, which is present in the pancreas, thereby allowing the pancreatic enzymes to flow into the small intestine. (5)

VIP also directly inhibits the secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen within the stomach while stimulating the secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

The suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is present in the hypothalamus, is responsible for controlling the body’s circadian rhythm. VIP regulates the firing rate of this nucleus and thus has an effect on the natural cycle of the body.

Benefits of VIP

Now that we know how VIP works, it will be fairly simple to correlate the benefits!

Anti-Inflammatory Effects 

Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease in which there is considerable digestive tract swelling, which leads to abdominal pain and diarrhea. In such cases, VIP is able to exert its anti-inflammatory actions and brings relief to patients.

In other autoimmune diseases, such as osteoarthritis, VIP is able to modulate inflammation in joints by inhibiting cytokines. It thus helps in controlling the destruction of cartilage and bone, which is a major risk factor in arthritis. (6)

Vasodilatory Effects 

Because of its vasodilation properties, VIP maintains both lung and heart health. It does so by dilating blood vessels, which ensures ample blood supply to these organs. This is why it effectively controls pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

Considering this major benefit, VIP was used in patients with respiratory failure during the Covid-19 pandemic, which yielded significant results. (7)

Its activity as a vasodilator also makes it beneficial for people who have been diagnosed with erectile dysfunction. VIP dilates the blood vessels of the cavernous tissue of the penis and helps with maintaining an erection.

Enhances Gut Health 

VIP relaxes the smooth muscles of the intestine, which subsequently ensures that proper peristalsis is taking place. Along with this, it regulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes, thereby maintaining overall gut health.

Anti-Microbial Properties 

A lesser-known benefit of VIP is its antimicrobial activity towards certain bacteria, while on the other hand, it promotes the proliferation of beneficial gut bacteria.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Guide
Fig 2. Effects of VIP on gut microbiota composition 

Regulates Other Hormones 

It also helps in inducing the release of other hormones, including prolactin, LH, insulin, and glucagon, which prove to be highly beneficial in regulating the blood glucose level in the body and preventing any drastic side effects.

 Is VIP Legal?

The effects of VIP have been established through various clinical trials on human and animal subjects. This peptide, however, still requires more understanding which can be established through further studies.

Thus, it is not approved by the FDA.

However, Aviptadil, a synthetic form of VIP, was granted FDA Fast track designation for specifically treating critical covid-19 patients with respiratory failure. (8)

 Who should use VIP?

Since VIP dilates blood vessels and eases the flow of blood in the body, it can be used by people suffering from chronic hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases to alleviate the risk of further complications.

Its anti-inflammatory effect makes it beneficial in alleviating the pain that accompanies auto-immune diseases such as osteoarthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Moreover, it also helps people with erectile dysfunction. 

People who are seeking to maintain a healthy gut can also consume this peptide!

Forms of VIP

The widely available form of VIP is an injection or IV fluid drip. These forms are mostly used because of their bioavailability, potency, and ability to yield results in a shorter period of time.

Another form that is albeit less popular but safer is the nasal spray. Patients with respiratory problems specifically use it.

VIP can also be taken orally, which is another less invasive and cost-effective method. Capsules of VIP in sterically stabilized micelles have been recently introduced, but more research is required to confirm its efficacy.

How to use VIP

VIP is mostly administered intravenously, the fastest way through which its therapeutic effects can be seen.

People with erectile dysfunction also administer the injection intra-cavernously.

VIP Dosage

Considering that there are numerous benefits of this peptide, it must be noted that the doses may also vary from one situation to another.  

Studies have reported that up to 100μg of aerosolized Aviptadil can be safely administered in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This dose can be increased to 200μg in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases. 

To achieve a satisfactory erection, 25μg of VIP can be injected intra-cavernously. 

VIP Cycling

VIP nasal sprays for treating COPD can be administered 4 times daily for 3-6 months. The continued use of aerosolized VIP highly depends on the relief from symptoms that people observe, and this differs from person to person.

For pulmonary hypertension, inhalation of a single 100μg dose has also proven to be beneficial.

Intracavernous injections of 25μg have been used only as a single dose so far.   

To know more about dosage and cycling guidelines, read our comprehensive chart on the website! 

VIP Stacks

VIP is a pleiotropic peptide that has diverse effects on different systems of the body. Due to this reason, VIP is often not stacked with peptides or drugs and is mainly used for therapeutic and pain-alleviating purposes.

Very few studies have, however, reported that the administration of 1-2mg of phentolamine along with VIP in a single intracavernosal injection has resulted in satisfactory erection in people who were suffering from erectile dysfunction. 

VIP User Reviews

Time to dig into some of the user reviews on VIP and what people have really experienced after using the peptide. 

One of the doctors on Reddit said

“VIP is great. I use this in practice with mixed results. Some people think it’s a god send for improving their mold symptoms such as brain fog and migraines. Some see little to no improvement. I dose at 50mcg per spray with one spray daily in practice but the dosing could be much lower when trying it for the first time. Pharmacies go as low as 5mcg per spray. Usually it’s dosed up to 4X daily but it is advised to not use after 3P as it does have a little stimulatory effect.”

Another one shared his experience, 

“I purchased some VIP as a hail mary to try intranasally. Within 1 hour, most of my symptoms were better. I witnessed as my vision became less blurry and my eyes less strained. Amazing stuff. It’s been surreal. I’m about 3-4 weeks in now. I’d say that I’m still better, but I’m losing my frame of reference, so it also feels like progress is stalling a bit.”

Some people reported mild adverse flushing and toxic effects after using VIP but generally speaking, it seems to be well tolerated. 

VIP Side effects

One of the major and well-researched side effects of taking VIP are migraines and delayed headaches. Patients have later also reported nausea. This can be attributed to the fact that VIP prolongs the dilation of cranial arteries, ultimately resulting in migraines. 

Other side effects include dizziness, low blood pressure, palpitations, and irritability.

Where can I buy VIP?

With so much market and competition in the peptide industry, it is extremely important to pick the right vendor that specializes in selling authentic peptides at nominal costs. BioTech peptides is one of the top options that I would recommend! 

BioTech Peptides 

Biotech peptides offer almost all kinds of peptides available in the market. As far as VIP is concerned, it is sold in only one variant. 

You can buy VIP (6mg) at the cost of $66. 

BioTech peptides are at the top, with 99% product purity. For customer retention, they also offer 5%-10% discounts depending on your purchase. 

Surprisingly, they also have a same-day shipping facility with a 30-day money-back guarantee as well.

  • 99% pure and authentic 
  • Same-day shipping policy 
  • Excellent customer reviews 
  • Relatively expensive

VIP Vs. Other Peptides

VIP vs. Thymosin Alpha-1

Both these endogenous peptides play a key role in modulating the body’s immune system by functioning at a cellular level. They are anti-inflammatory peptides that play a vital role in curbing pain, especially in autoimmune diseases. Thymosin Alpha-1 is said to be an agonist of VIP and thus can interact with VIP receptors.

However, VIP is still more potent in stimulating the adenylate cyclase activity as compared to Thymosin Alpha-1, which goes on to regulate inflammation in the body.

Moreover, Thymosin Alpha-1 originates from the Thymus, while VIP originates from the intestine and thus regulates the digestive tract’s functions.

To know more about Thymosin Alpha-1, read my detailed review of the peptide. 

Is VIP Legit?

Further research on VIP, including human subjects, is still necessary to clarify this peptide’s working mechanism.

However, based on the existing scientific and anecdotal evidence, it can be inferred that VIP has a lot to offer as a peptide. From regulating the immune system to maintaining a healthy gut, VIP has got you covered!

Even though there are some side effects of this peptide, they are relatively mild and not extensively reported, thus, it can be assumed that VIP can be safely consumed. 

FAQs about VIP

What triggers VIP release?

VIP is produced by immune cells, including T cells, B cells, mast cells, and eosinophils stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β 32.

Does VIP increase motility?

In the stomach, VIP produced gastric relaxation and a blood flow increase. The motility response was similar to that observed when eliciting the vago-vagal reflex relaxation by distending the esophagus. In the small intestine, hyperemia and a decrease in net water uptake were observed.

What is VIP for autoimmune?

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is the paradigm of an endogenous neuropeptide produced during autoimmune responses and systemic and local inflammation processes. It acts as an immunomodulatory agent to restore homeostasis of the immune system.

How can I stimulate my motility?

Eat more fiber. Fiber-rich foods such as whole grains, leafy vegetables, and fresh fruits will add bulk to your feces and help stimulate the bowel to push food along. Because a quick addition of fiber to your diet can result in gas, bloating, and cramps, it should gradually be introduced over time.

Still Have Questions?

Drop us a comment down below and one of our expert coaches will respond to it.

1)Said SI, Mutt V. Polypeptide with broad biological activity: isolation from small intestine. Science. 1970;169(3951):1217-1218. doi:10.1126/science.169.3951.1217

2)Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D. The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation. Pharmacol Rev. 2004;56(2):249-290. doi:10.1124/pr.56.2.7

3)Goetzl EJ, Voice JK, Shen S, et al. Enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity and diminished immediate-type hypersensitivity in mice lacking the inducible VPAC(2) receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(24):13854-13859. doi:10.1073/pnas.241503798

4)Robert J Henning, Darrell R Sawmiller, Vasoactive intestinal peptide: cardiovascular effects, Cardiovascular Research, Volume 49, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 27–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6363(00)00229-7

5) Bahri˙ Karaçay, M. Sue O'Dorisio, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), Editor(s): Helen L. Henry, Anthony W. Norman, Encyclopedia of Hormones, Academic Press, 2003, Pages 564-575, ISBN 9780123411037, https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-341103-3/00298-9.

6)Jiang, W., Wang, H., Li, Ys. et al. Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in osteoarthritis. J Biomed Sci 23, 63 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-016-0280-1

7) Youssef, Jihad Georges MD1,2; Lavin, Philip PhD3; Schoenfeld, David A. PhD4; Lee, Richard A. MD5; Lenhardt, Rainer MD6; Park, David J. MD7; Fernandez, Javier Perez MD8; Morganroth, Melvin L. MD9; Javitt, Jonathan C. MD, MPH10,11; Jayaweera, Dushyantha MD12. The Use of IV Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (Aviptadil) in Patients With Critical COVID-19 Respiratory Failure: Results of a 60-Day Randomized Controlled Trial*. Critical Care Medicine 50(11):p 1545-1554, November 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005660

8)Youssef JG, Lavin P, Schoenfeld DA, et al. The Use of IV Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (Aviptadil) in Patients With Critical COVID-19 Respiratory Failure: Results of a 60-Day Randomized Controlled Trial. Crit Care Med. 2022;50(11):1545-1554. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000005660

Contributors

Kartik Kumar Rathi

Kartik Kumar Rathi | Writer

Kartik is a medical student with a passion for anatomy and physiology. He writes research papers, articles and blogs to raise awareness and also has a strong interest in teaching and public speaking. Aspiring to be a successful cardiologist, Kartik believes in connecting with people on a personal level and is an expert in peptide research.

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