Most of your brain development occurs in childhood. Brain development continues through adolescence and into early adulthood. Once you’re in your 20s, it can feel more challenging to learn and retain information.
However, there are supplements that you can take to improve your brain power. Pramiracetam is one such supplement. Sometimes referred to as a smart drug, cognitive enhancer or brain booster, Pramiracetam is one of the most potent nootropics on the market.
Pramiracetam’s chemical name is N-(2-(bis(1-methylethyl)amino)ethyl)-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide sulfate. It is part of the racetam class of nootropics.
Nootropics are chemicals that help improve brain function. They may be manmade or natural. The word was thought up by Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the scientist who developed Piracetam, the first racetam and a parent of Pramiracetam.
In addition to enhancing learning and memory, nootropics help protect the brain, increase its ability to function in less-than-ideal circumstances, improve neuronal firing and have virtually no side effects.
Once Pramiracetam reaches the brain, it modulates acetylcholine receptor sites. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that helps nerve cells communicate with other cells. It is required for your brain to tell your body which muscles to move. It also manages the way the brain processes information.
Acetylcholine helps with:
- Neuroplasticity, or re-wiring of the brain
Deficits in this neurotransmitter have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Researchers believe that Pramiracetam improves the way the brain uses acetylcholine. It binds to receptor sites for the neurotransmitter, improving acetylcholine uptake. This increases the level of acetylcholine that circulates within the brain and helps create clearer brain signals.
Pramiracetam works on acetylcholine transmitters in the hippocampus. This is the part of the brain that is associated with memory and spacial cognition.
Pramiracetam can also increase blood flow to the brain. More blood brings more oxygen to brain cells, making you feel more clearheaded and energetic.
Is Pramiracetam Legal?
The regulation of chemical substances is different in different countries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, regulates and approves drugs that have been designed to treat or prevent identifiable medical conditions. These medications are regulated, which means that they are controlled substances. A prescription is necessary to acquire and use a regulated substance.
Like many supplements, Pramiracetam is not considered to be a regulated substance. It is not controlled, approved or regulated by the FDA. Therefore, it is legal to purchase and use Pramiracetam without a prescription in the United States.
Other countries have different laws. In the United Kingdom, Pramiracetam is also unregulated, which means that it’s legal. Although many residents of the United Kingdom order Pramiracetam from the United States, European vendors may label it as Pramistar.
The agencies that regulate medications in Canada give all regulated medications drug identification numbers, or DINs. Pramiracetam has not been assigned a DIN. Therefore, it is legal to purchase and use Pramiracetam in Canada.
Since it’s not a prescription drug, you can legally import Pramiracetam for personal use. If you’re ordering from overseas, a supply designed for one to three months of use is typically considered reasonable. However, shipments of large quantities may be delayed in customs even though it’s legal.
Half-Life: How Long Does Pramiracetam Last?
The half-life of Pramiracetam is somewhat long. However, studies show that it can differ from person to person. One study found that in dogs, the half-life was about 2 to 4 hours. A study on human volunteers found that the half-life was closer to 4.5 to 6.5 hours regardless of the dosage. Another study on humans found that in some people, the half-life was 2 hours, while in others it was 8.
However, the half-life remained fairly consistent for each individual. That means that it should always take about the same amount of time for the drug to leave your system.
Because Pramiracetam is fat soluble, the amount of fat in your body as well as what you eat when you take the supplement can affect its half-life. Eating it with fat will improve its absorption. The effects of fat-soluble supplements also tend to be felt more rapidly than the effects of water-soluble supplements.
The average Pramiracetam user can take the supplement every 6 hours to maintain its effects throughout the day. However, if you notice that the half-life is shorter or longer for you, you can experiment with your dosing schedule.
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Can You Overdose?
It would be extremely difficult to overdose on Pramiracetam. High dosages can result in short-term side effects like headaches, nausea and upset stomach. However, these side effects have also been linked with inadequate choline levels in the body. WebMD reports that many people don’t get enough choline in their diet. If you’re not consuming enough dietary choline, you may experience headaches when taking Pramiracetam.
However, researchers have found that most people and animals tolerate the substance well. One study showed that no significant side effects were reported at any dosage.
The LD50 scale is a measure of the toxicity of several substances. It defines how much of a substance is necessary to kill a rat. Even caffeine can kill a rat at high levels. However, researchers have found that there is no level of Piracetam, Pramiracetam’s parent drug, that can kill a rat. Therefore, there is no LD50 rating for the substance.
Taking A Megadose
There are many anecdotal reports about people taking a megadose of Pramiracetam. It’s virtually impossible to find information about anyone having serious side effects.
Megadosing before bedtime can enhance your dreams. One user reported sleeping more lightly and having more vivid dreams than usual. Despite the lack of deep sleep, the user felt more refreshed in the morning. In fact, this user said that after the second night of megadosing, he had more energy during the days and wasn’t extremely sleepy at night, although he was able to sleep.
Another user reported feeling incredible levels of creativity, articulation and learning ability when taking 5,000 mg of Pramiracetam daily.
However, many say that taking more than 2,500 mg a day is not ideal. One of the dangers of taking too much Pramiracetam has to do with its ability to increase nitric oxide activity in the brain. Researchers have linked nitric oxide with the brain cell degeneration that occurs in Parkinson’s disease.
Taking 100 mg per kg doesn’t seem to affect the nitric oxide activity. Taking 300 mg per kg increases it by 20%. That means that a 150-pound individual taking 6,800 mg might not experience changes in nitric oxide levels. However, taking 20,000 mg might. However, most people don’t megadose with that much Pramiracetam.
The general consensus from Pramiracetam users on many forums, including the Bodybuilding.com forum, is that this substance may have a faster onset of tolerance than other racetams. However, tolerance from racetams appears to occur on an individual basis.
Some people report that the first dose provides significant effects, but they don’t feel anything after consequent doses.
One user provides a convincing argument. This user notes that nootropics, such as Pramiracetam, scientifically improve cognition. They make it easier for people to process and retrieve information along certain neural pathways.
The first time this occurs, it is noticeable because it is in stark contrast to the status quo, which is assumed to be a difficulty in retrieving and storing information. However, as time goes on, you get used to this ease. You no longer have to concentrate as hard on learning, so your perception of the effectiveness is not as potent.
In other words, as your mind adapts and improves, your mental exertion to accomplish certain tasks lessens. While people may perceive this as tolerance, it could be the opposite. The substance has made lasting change on your brain. You don’t need more to achieve effects. The cognitive improvement will still occur; it just becomes less noticeable because your brain is more efficient.
Another explanation for the tolerance effect is that as the supplement makes cognitive functions become easier, you get lazy with your brainpower. If you don’t have to try as hard to learn and remember things, why would you? After several months of taking a nootropic but reducing the amount of mental exercise that you perform, ceasing to take the medication can make you feel foggier and less cognitively proficient as you were while taking the drug.
Dosage: How Much Pramiracetam To Take
Although it is generally considered safe to take up to 2,400mg of Pramiracetam at a time, some people may only need about 400 to 800 mg.
Examine.com explains that most studies have looked at the effectiveness of the drug at a total daily dosage of 1,200. While that may not be the ideal dosage for everyone, researchers have demonstrated its effectiveness.
Because Piracetam has a rather short half-life, users may experience more consistent results if they take smaller doses throughout the day. Starting with 400mg is a safe guideline.
If you’re new to using Piracetam, it can be helpful to record what time you take it, how much you take, when you begin to feel the effects and when the effects begin to decline. Then, you can adjust the timing and dosage as needed.
How To Take Pramiracetam: What’s The Best Way?
Pramiracetam is available as a bulk powder or a capsule. The powder is absorbed faster than swallowing a capsule, because it takes time for the exterior coating of the capsule to be digested. However, the capsules can always be opened to access the powder.
Buying Pramiracetam in bulk can save money. You can also purchase empty capsules if you want to buy in bulk but take the supplement in capsule form. Most people either mix Pramiracetam with milk or take a capsule along with a meal or with a fatty acid supplement.
Taking Pramiracetam Sublingual
Although many nootropics are more effective when the powder is dissolved under the tongue, Pramiracetam is more effective when it is swallowed orally with another fat. That’s because absorption occurs in the digestive tract.
Taking Pramiracetam sublingually may result in severe burning and pain under the tongue. Other nootropics can produce a tingling effect when taken in this manner. However, the irritation from Pramiracetam can take 3 to 5 days to go away. Putting Pramiracetam directly onto oral tissues can also produce mouth sores.
Although many users report feeling a marked difference in the drug’s effects when taking it sublingually as opposed to orally, the damage it causes to the mucus membranes in the mouth is not worth it.
Taking It Orally With Food
Many people mix nootropic powders with a liquid in order to swallow them. Because Pramiracetam is fat soluble, it does not mix well with water. It may seem to dissolve but remain in an oily puddle at the surface of the water. It will dissolve in a fatty fluid, such as whole milk or coconut oil. Some people sandwich the powder between two dollops of coconut oil and swallow it like a pill.
Many nootropics should be taken on an empty stomach. This is not the case for Pramiracetam. If you don’t take the supplement with a fatty acid of some kind, it may not be absorbed in the intestines, and you won’t feel its effects at all.
If you’re taking Pramiracetam with a meal, make sure that the meal contains a sufficient amount of fatty acids. Some of the best foods to eat with Pramiracetam are:
- Whole eggs or egg yolks
- Full-fat dairy products
- Salmon or other fatty fish
If you don’t want to eat a meal, take Pramiracetam with your bulletproof coffee, or make a smoothie with coconut oil to drink with it. You can also stack it with a fish oil supplement for adequate absorption.
Insufflation (Snorting It)
Snorting Pramiracetam is not recommended. Anything that is uncomfortable to place under the tongue will be even more uncomfortable when insufflated. It can cause intense burning and damage to the mucus membranes. Users who have tried insufflating the supplement have reported nosebleeds, burning near the eyes and headaches.
Snorting Pramiracetam can damage the blood vessels in the nose. This prevents oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues inside the nostrils.
Taking It Before Bed
Some people claim to have more lucid dreams when they take Pramiracetam before bed. They may not sleep as deeply, but they wake up feeling clearheaded and alert. However, most people who take Pramiracetam before bed report that the benefits deteriorate over time.
If you consistently take Pramiracetam before bed, you may end up feeling unable to sleep. However, some users become sleepy when they take Pramiracetam during the day. These people may benefit from taking it before bed instead.
Choline is important for helping you maintain a healthy circadian rhythm. Because many people take choline along with Pramiracetam, this could have a beneficial effect on sleep. Acetylcholine levels in the brain are typically high while you’re dreaming. This also explains why taking Pramiracetam before bed may elicit exceptionally vivid dreams.
Pramiracetam Review & User Experience
Although you can read about scientific research that has been conducted on Pramiracetam, it’s also helpful to learn about the effects the drug has had on regular users. Some of the best places to read about users’ experiences with Pramiracetam are on nootropic communities on the internet.
Nootropics have different effects on different users. Most people who take the supplement say that they feel like they can think better. They also feel like their brain performance is improved. This involves thinking more clearly and making decisions more efficiently.
Some people say that when they start taking Pramiracetam, they see the world differently. Fogginess and feelings of fatigue no longer plague them. This helps them to focus on their surroundings and tasks more easily. These experiences are typical with nootropic containing compounds from the racetam family such as CogniShield as well.
In fact, some users say that the supplement makes them unable to stop performing a task until they have completed it. This offers a great deal of potential for people with attention issues like ADHD.
You may experience different specific results than other users. However, the basic cognitive changes are similar.
Most people report that the benefits of Pramiracetam are as follows:
- Improves focus
- Increases alertness
- Enhances the creation of long-term memories
- Improves cognitive function
- Makes sights and sounds more vivid
- Improves confidence
However, unlike some other Nootropics. Pramiracetam doesn’t seem to significantly boost mood. Some users do experience an improvement in temperament while taking Pramiracetam. Others say that it dulls their emotions and makes them feel numb. Depending on your situation, this could be considered a mood boosting effect.
Researchers have even studied Pramiracetam for its effects on people with amnesia. They have found that the supplement can help reverse amnesia in people who are unable to access certain memories due to age-related cognitive decline.
Pramiracetam Benefits & Effects
Pramiracetam doesn’t affect the neurotransmitters that make you feel good. Some other nootropics have more distinct effects on dopamine, GABA and serotonin. Pramiracetam does not work on these brain chemicals. Therefore, there is no direct link between Pramiracetam and anxiety reduction.
Because Pramiracetam can help you think on your feet, it can encourage people with social anxiety to venture out and engage with other people. Users who are usually shy and insecure about their social interactions report being more confident when talking to other people. They are better able to come up with interesting things to say and think of the right words at the right time.
The way that Pramiracetam numbs emotions can also reduce anxiety in some people. However, many people state that this is not a desirable result. For this reason, many users only take the supplement on specific days when they need to focus. Many people don’t use this as a daily nootropic.
Pramiracetam can help you concentrate. Instead of feeling tired when you’re faced with a task that involves intense brain power, you may feel more alert and interested. This can help with symptoms of ADHD.
Unlike amphetamines, Pramiracetam shouldn’t induce a noticeable stimulant effect. That means that you will be able to focus without feeling jittery. People with ADD and ADHD report feeling much more improved concentration without the side effects of traditional drugs that are prescribed for these conditions.
Pramiracetam is considered to be even more potent than its parent, Piracetam, for treating the cognitive disorder that is associated with ADHD. Although studies have not been conducted to determine the efficacy of the drug on ADHD symptoms, many users report favorable effects.
Some users even say that the drug helps them stay still. Some people with ADHD have trouble controlling their bodies and feel more comfortable when in constant motion. Pramiracetam can help people feel an ability to physically focus and reduce fidgeting.
One of the main benefits of Pramiracetam is in its effects on memory. In fact, it is often touted as one of the best racetams for brain functions that involve memory.
To understand how Pramiracetam may work, it’s important to understand how memories are created. Memories are essentially the relationship between neurons. As synapses develop between neurons and communication is consistently made down a particular pathway, memory develops.
Pramiracetam helps new synapses form. It also enhances communication between neurons, helping memories become created. As you learn new information, new synapses are formed. This is how learning takes place. This is why Pramiracetam is an ideal supplement for studying.
Many people notice a benefit to their memory within one week of taking Pramiracetam consistently. When you’re studying, you are often required to absorb and store large amounts of information for later recall. This is why Pramiracetam can be especially effective while studying.
Many users find that they are able to recall subtle details extremely clearly while taking Pramiracetam. They find that something they read just pops into their brain without much effort, or they remember the particulars of their surroundings more readily. Some people even remember their dreams more clearly.
This makes people have the sense that more information is available to them when they are accessing their memory. It becomes less difficult to access the stored memories, and users are often able to recall information more rapidly.
Side Effects & Dangers: Is Pramiracetam Safe?
Researchers and users have found that Pramiracetam is safe even when taken in large doses. However, some users report side effects, including:
- Zombie-like effects
- Blunted emotions
Another side effect that has been noted is its ability to enhance the effects of alcohol. Because Pramiracetam increases the amount of blood flow to the brain, alcohol reaches the brain faster. You can become intoxicated more quickly and with less alcohol when you consume alcohol within about 4 to 6 hours of taking Pramiracetam
One of the most common side effects for people who take Pramiracetam is headaches. Because the reason for the headaches is known, there is an easy fix. In most cases, the headaches appear because too much choline has been used up in the brain without being replaced. Replacing the choline with an adequate supplement can help prevent this side effect.
If you are still experiencing headaches while taking a choline supplement, you may not be taking the right ratio for your body. Experiment with lowering the amount of Pramiracetam and increasing the amount of choline. You may also want to alter the type of choline that you’re taking. You can find out more about stacking Pramiracetam with different types of choline below.
Some people experience symptoms of anxiety and nervousness when taking Pramiracetam. This can interfere with healthy sleep cycles.
If you’re experiencing sleep problems while taking Pramiracetam, you may be suffering from adrenal fatigue. If you’re trying to get too much done in too little time, not getting enough rest and eating poorly, adrenal fatigue is likely to occur. If you have added stress on top of everything else, adrenal fatigue may affect your sleep.
Because many people take nootropics to study for a big exam, write a major paper or tackle an important project, it’s not uncommon for these users to have high levels of stress. Relaxation techniques, exercising and getting optimal nutrition can help with the adrenal fatigue that can interfere with sleep.
Although Pramiracetam is supposed to increase mental alertness, it makes some users tired when taken during the day. These users may consider using it closer to bedtime. Some users say that taking choline along with Pramiracetam is what makes them feel fatigued. However, other users say that not enough choline can make you tired. This supports the idea that you might need to experiment with your choline source when taking Pramiracetam.
Pramiracetam doesn’t work on the mood-boosting chemicals in the brain, so it technically is not supposed to affect depression or anxiety. However, different users report varying effects on sadness, anxiety and depression.
One of the side effects of Pramiracetam is a numbing of the emotions. One user referred to this as feeling “cold and logical.” For some people, this decrease in dramatic emotions may be helpful.
However, some people feel as though it limits their ability to mentally reward themselves for their productivity or added confidence, leaving them feeling sad. A few users have reported feeling negative feelings if they don’t have a task to focus on.
Most of these users say that these depressive effects increase the longer they take the supplement consistently. You may be able to decrease Pramiracetam’s depressive effects by stacking it with a mood-boosting nootropic.
Pramiracetam may negatively or positively affect your libido. Users seem to have different experiences in this area. On one hand, you may not be distracted by sexual thoughts if you’re working on something else while using the supplement. On the other hand, if you want to focus on an erotic stimulus, your libido may be enhanced.
If the supplement affects you by making you feel emotionally blunted, you may find that your libido doesn’t seem as high. That may be because you’re not feeling the emotions that add to the physical experience that goes along with your libido.
One study found that activation of acetylcholine can increase prolactin levels, which can contribute to sexual dysfunction. However, this study was not related to nootropic substances in any way.
Other researchers claim that when medications that suppress acetylcholine are given to Alzheimer’s patients, they experience a type of hypersexuality and increased libido. These studies may point to the increase of acetylcholine as a libido suppresser. However, this study mentions acetylcholine as a facilitator of arousal.
Even though scientists have not reported that people can develop a tolerance to Pramiracetam, many users feel as though they develop a tolerance. They may feel a significant high the first time they take the supplement, and that high diminishes with each consequent dosage.
However, some users encourage people to try the supplement for at least two months before deciding whether it works or not. This user experienced photographic memory only after long-term use. This effect was experienced at dosages of more than 1,000 per day.
Pramiracetam’s benefits can be improved by stacking it with another nootropic. One of the best ways to determine the ideal stack for you is to take Pramiracetam on its own to determine how it feels when you take it alone.
Add other supplements slowly, and record the effects. If you find that you experience more side effects when stacking supplements, reduce the dosage of one of the supplements, or discontinue stacking them in that manner.
Everyone’s biochemistry is distinct. Therefore, everyone experiences different effects from Prmiracetam stcks.
Pramiracetam and Choline
Recently, Pramiracetam has surfaced as one of the best regarded nootropics. People take it for its ability to improve focus, information storage, memory recall and cognitive processing.
Scientists believe that Pramiracetam works by increasing activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a part in learning and memory. When you take Pramiracetam, choline uptake is amplified in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. Because of this, you can improve the supplement’s benefits by stacking Pramiracetam and choline.
Many experienced nootropic users stack Pramiracetam with choline. Choline is a building block for acetylcholine. If you don’t get enough of it in the diet, it can affect your learning, cognition, ability to process information and memory.
Because more acetylcholine is metabolized when you take Pramiracetam, you may use more of the neurotransmitter than is stored up. If your acetylcholine levels don’t meet the demand, you can experience symptoms of deficiency, such as headaches. Many users find relief from the headaches when they stack Pramiracetam and choline.
When you take a choline supplement, you’re providing your brain with a solid foundation from which to access acetylcholine.
Phosphatidylcholine is found in foods like eggs, animal liver and dairy. Even if you eat a diet high in these foods, you may not get enough choline to support the acetylcholine production associated with Pramiracetam usage.
Choline bitartrate and choline citrate are affordable salt forms of choline. They are often not concentrated enough to stack with Pramiracetam.
CDP choline or citicoline penetrates the blood-brain barrier better than choline salts. It encourages more acetylcholine to be produced in the brain than the types of choline that we’ve previously mentioned.
Scientists aren’t sure how centrophenoxine works, but research shows that it increases acetylcholine levels. Users report that it works well when stacked with Pramiracetam.
Another supplement that will help create the highest possible acetylcholine levels in the brain is huperzine A. This is an acetylcholinesterase antagonist. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that helps break down acetylcholine in the body. If you suppress this enzyme, you allow for more circulating acetylcholine in the brain.
There is no hard-and-fast guideline for the correct proportions of choline to Pramiracetam. The right ratio depends on your dietary choline intake, absorption rate and brain metabolism. In addition, the different types of choline supplements provide different amounts of free choline. Experiment the stack by adding a little more choline every day until you experience a relief in headaches and optimal effects from the Pramiracetam.
Pramiracetam and Noopept Stack
Noopept is another nootropic that is popular with people who want to improve their mental abilities. Noopept and Pramiracetam are two of the most potent nootropics. Like Pramiracetam, Noopept also helps modulate acetylcholine in the brain.
Noopept is known for helping improve problem solving skills and verbal sharpness. It also has implications for long-term brain health and can help improve mood and decrease anxiety. Pramiracetam is more often associated with immediate improvements to brain function.
Pairing the two can help fill in the gaps. If you are interested in reducing stress and maintaining a sense of wellbeing in addition to improving your focus, memory and concentration, you can stack Pramiracetam and Noopept. For a more powerful stack, you might want to try Phenylpiracetam and Noopept, which is included in the supplement CogniShield.
Pramiracetam and Alpha GPC
Pramiracetam is often recommended as a replacement for people who stack Piracetam, Aniracetam and Oxiracetam. Adding Alpha GPC makes the Pramiracetam seem to work even better.
Alpha GPC is considered a potent nootropic on its own. It can also be stacked with Pramiracetam to help replace acetylcholine levels. As Alpha GPC is metabolized, it turns into acetylcholine. It can improve the memory boosting properties of Pramiracetam. It also helps protect your brain by reducing oxidative stress.
Stacking Pramiracetam and Alpha GPC is sometimes dubbed the “study stack” because it can work wonders in improving your concentration. This is an ideal stack for short-term learning needs.
Compared To Other Nootropics
Pramiracetam vs Piracetam
Pramiracetam is derived from Piracetam, so you might assume that they are similar. However, Pramiracetam is about 30 times more potent than Piracetam. This means that you can take less of it to obtain results. It can also mean that Pramiracetam is more expensive per milligram, depending on where you purchase it.
Piracetam is the original nootropic. It may no longer be the most potent, but it is the most extensively studied. Piracetam has been found to have no significant side effects and to be extremely safe.
Whereas Pramiracetam is fat soluble, Piracetam is water soluble. Piracetam can be mixed with juice or water. Piracetam can also be used sublingually for more rapid absorption, whereas Pramiracetam cannot. However, both substances are efficiently absorbed when taken orally, so sublingual dosage isn’t necessary.
Both Pramiracetam and Piracetam act upon the acetylcholine and glutamate receptor sites in the brain, helping them to communicate with nerve cells. This improves the communication of the neurons in the brain, leading to better memory and learning.
Piracetam may also help balance electrolytes such as calcium and potassium. These electrolytes help transmit electrical impulses in the brain. When they are balanced, communication between brain cells is improved. Brainpower is determined by the amount of electrical activity in the brain. If you have more electrical activity, you have more brainpower.
Both supplements deliver results quickly, but Pramiracetam is considered to produce effects faster than Piracetam. The effects may also be more noticeable. This makes Pramiracetam ideal for short-term use and Piracetam ideal for long-term use.
Both supplements have positive effects on learning, memory, productivity and motivation. They may help you see more clearly. Your senses may be enhanced when you take these nootropics. Pramiracetam essentially has the same effects as Piracetam. The benefits are simply more pronounced.
Pramiracetam vs Phenylpiracetam
Like Pramiracetam, Phenylpiracetam is also derived from Piracetam. In addition to enhancing mental performance, Phenylpiracetam has been shown to enhance physical abilities. Phenylpiracetam has been banned for use by professional athletes because of its psychostimulatory properties. Phenylpiracetam can even help with motion sickness.
Phenylpiracetam has been shown to help patients who are recovering from stroke improve their physical abilities. In fact, people who take Phenylpiracetam daily after having a stroke recover more quickly than people who don’t. The supplement can also help reduce depressive symptoms that occur after a stroke. Studies have not been done on elderly people or depressed individuals who have not suffered from cognitive impairment.
Phenylpiracetam has been studied for its neuroprotective effects. Although it has not been found to improve brain function when the brain has been compromised by injury, it does show promise for helping with cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, organic lesions, stroke and epilepsy.
One study showed that a side effect of Phenylpiracetam is sleep disruption. However, other studies have not found the same results.
Unlike Pramiracetam, Phenylpiracetam affects dopamine levels in the brain. This can improve your mood.
Phenylpiracetam also increases noradrenaline levels in the brain. This may have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. However, users report that it is not as stimulatory as typical stimulants, such as amphetamines. Still, it can be used to boost energy, whereas Pramiracetam doesn’t usually show intense effects on energy levels.
Pramiracetam vs Noopept
Noopept is another nootropic that is considered to be extremely potent. Most of the research on Noopept has revolved around its ability for treating Alzheimer’s disease and ADHD. Because it has mood-boosting capabilities, Noopept has also been studied for its potential in treating mood disorders such as depression.
Noopept does not affect the acetylcholine receptors in the same way that Pramiracetam does. Therefore, headaches are not usually a side effect of Noopept. However, some people claim that Noopept causes sleeping difficulties, high blood pressure and irritability. These side effects are not noted in users of Pramiracetam.
Many users do not encourage taking megadoses of Noopept. On the contrary, users have experienced benefits from megadosing with Pramiracetam at times.
While some users claim that Pramiracetam causes a boost in productive energy, especially the first time it’s used, Noopept may have a milder effect. For this reason, it may be more beneficial to cycle off of Pramiracetam periodically or only take it when needed. Noopept is often taken on a more long-term basis.
Pramiracetam vs Aniracetam
If you’re looking to add mood-enhancing benefits to your nootropic stack, Aniracetam can help. Aniracetam has a different mechanism of action than Pramiracetam. It works on AMPA, one of the sets of glutamate receptors. It also affects dopamine and serotonin levels. It balances out these chemicals in the brain, resulting in almost instantaneous reduction in depression and anxiety symptoms.
Aniracetam has been linked to a reduction in anxiety in rats. Although no human studies have been conducted, users claim that their anxiety levels decrease when taking Aniracetam. Researchers have found that Aniracetam improves symptoms of depression in older mice. However, no effects are found in younger mice. This may indicate that the medication would not improve depressive symptoms in youth.
Aniracetam has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. Studies on rats have found that Aniracetam can improve cognitive deficits caused by fetal alcohol syndrome. It may reverse neurological alterations caused by Alzheimer’s and symptoms associated with the disease.
Aniracetam is also fat soluble. That means that it should be taken orally and it should not be placed under the tongue. It is not as bioavailable as Pramiracetam. The reported total bioavailability of Aniracetam is between 8 and 12 percent. Pramiracetam is absorbed into the system more efficiently. That is because it is more soluble in fats than Aniracetam.
According to Examine.com, Aniracetam is considered to be geared toward creative and holistic thinking better than some of the other racetams. While Pramiracetam can help you have a one-track mind and get a task accomplished more efficiently, some people claim that it numbs their ability to think imaginatively and access their emotions. Aniracetam users are usually better able to put together multiple pieces of information for innovative problem solving and decision making.
Some users claim that they feel a stimulating energy boost when taking Aniracetam. However, the supplement is not a stimulant. It should technically not produce the same stimulating effects as Phenylpiracetam.
Phenylpiracetam has a longer half-life than Aniracetam. Whether or not you’re stacking the two supplements, you would need to take Aniracetam more often than Phenylpiracetam to prolong the effects. A user may only have to take Phenylpiracetam twice a day, whereas a user may take Aniracetam several times daily.
While researchers have not found conclusive evidence of tolerance for either of these drugs, many users report more of a tendency toward tolerance with Phenylpiracetam than with Aniracetam.
Pramiracetam vs Oxiracetam
Oxiracetam is perhaps a lesser known nootropic. However, it works in a similar manner as Pramiracetam. Like Pramiracetam, it is especially effective at improving memory. It can help you retrieve stored information and process complex data more easily.
Because Oxiracetam has been associated with improvements in critical analysis, many people tout its benefits for mathematicians, scientists, researchers and engineers. However, critical analysis is necessary in every aspect of brain function, so anyone can benefit from using Oxiracetam.
Although Oxiracetam is technically not a central nervous system stimulant, many people say that they feel a similar increase in energy as they might with caffeine or amphetamines.
However, most people who take Oxiracetam say that the effects are subtle. You might not feel as high when taking Oxiracetam as you do when taking Pramiracetam, especially if you are not taking Pramiracetam regularly.
One of the best ways to determine whether Oxiracetam is working for you is to test your brain function periodically. There are several tests for this online.
Some research shows that you need to allow Oxiracetam to build up in the system before you begin to notice effects. The supplement helps to protect brain health, improving symptoms of cognitive decline and even helping with amnesia. Pramiracetam has been linked with benefits for amnesia patients too.
The bottom line is that if you are looking for increased mental energy on a daily basis, Oxiracetam may be the best choice for you. If you are looking for a one-time significant boost in focus and productivity, you may prefer Pramiracetam.