I referenced this study in a recent video and article. I might have been somewhat confusing in the video. The point I made was that DOMS, or soreness, wasn't from muscle inflammation but from connective tissue inflammation.
Here is a quote that talks about this in greater detail:
Why Your Muscles Get Sore: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and Exercise ? Myosynthesis
A study by Crameri et al (2007) indicates that muscle damage doesn’t really correlate to soreness...
The pain of DOMS was actually attributed to the inflammation of the extracellular matrix – which is connective tissue that binds the muscle fibers together.
All of this would strongly indicate that connective tissues are the source of the actual pain and soreness, not the muscle fibers themselves. The damaging effects of exercise on actual muscle fibers don’t correlate with pain.
This is of interest because it means that inflammation and pain don’t indicate damaged muscle fibers per se. There’s tissue damage, and muscle fibers can be damaged along with that, but there’s no actual relation between muscle fiber damage and the pain you feel.
Taken together, there’s a very good chance that the processes behind DOMS and those responsible for muscle growth are only loosely related.