Basics of ketogenic dieting
[ Posted by Mr. Intensity @ www.dorianyates.net]
What exactly is Ketosis? The metabolic state of ketosis simply means that the quantity of ketone bodies in the blood have reached higher than normal levels. When the body is in a ketogenic state this means that lipid energy metabolism is intact. This means that the body will start breaking down your own body fat to fuel the body's normal, every day functions.
What's So Great About Being In Ketosis?
Establishing this metabolic state of ketosis even for a short period of time has many outstanding benefits.
The main benefit being that it increases the body's ability to utilize fats for fuel, which gets very lazy on a high carbohydrate diet. When on high carbohydrate diets the body can usually expect an energy source to keep entering the body. But in the state of ketosis the body has to become efficient at mobilizing fats as energy.
Another nifty thing about being in a state of ketosis is that if the body has no further use for ketones they can simply be excreted through urine as a waste product. This means that at times your body will be peeing out body fat! This is a novel theme because you body is very efficient at storing energy substrates for later use.
Ketosis has a protein sparing effect, assuming that you are consuming adequate quantities of protein and calories in the first place. Once in ketosis the body actually prefers ketones to glucose. Since the body has copious quanities of fat this means that there is no need to oxidize protein to generate glucose through gluconeogenesis.
Another benefit has to do with the low levels of insulin in the body, which causes greater lipolysis and free glycerol release compared to a normal diet when insulin is around 80-120. Insulin has a lipolysis blocking effect, which can inhibit the use of fatty acids as energy. Also when insulin is brought to low levels many beneficial hormones are released in the body such as growth hormone and other powerful growth factors.
Another small but very important benefit about the ketogenic diet is that when in the state of ketosis, ketones seem to blunt hunger in many people. I mean honestly, what is not better than being on a low calorie diet and not being hungry all the time like you usually are such as on a high carbohydrate diet. Since on the ketogenic diet you have to consume a lot of fat, which hold 9 calories, you are not getting much food volume. This makes not being hungry a very good thing when on the diet. When you add such thermogenics like the ECA stack and prescription appetite suppressants you won't even think about your next meal. It's kind of funny that when the Atkins' diet first came out one of the early criticisms was that the diet blunted hunger too much! What, is it mandatory to be hungry on a reduced calorie diet?
The last benefit has to do with the fact that a ketone body is an inefficient fuel source due to the fact that when the fatty acid is converted to a KB it contains 7 calories. This means that the normal pound of fat has less than 3500 calories.
Where Is The Scientific Data?
The state of ketosis is to the most part controlled by insulin, glucagon, and blood glucose levels. Insulin is one of the hormones that the pancreas secretes in the presence of carbohydrates. Insulin's purpose is to keep blood glucose levels in check by acting like a driver, pushing the glucose in the blood into cells. If insulin were not to be secreted blood glucose levels would get out of control and this would not be good for the body.
Glucagon on the other side of the spectrum is insulin's antagonistic hormone which is also secreted by the pancreas when insulin falls to quite low levels, this usually happens when a person skips meals, or does not consume adequate amounts of carbohydrates for an extended period of time. When this happens glucagon is secreted by the pancreas to break down stored glycogen in the liver into a more usable form, glucose. But what happens if this continues and liver glycogen runs out? This is where the metabolic state of ketosis comes in, because the pancreas can also start breaking down free fatty acids into a usable energy substrate, also known as ketones, or ketone bodies.
What Is A Ketone, Or A Ketone Body (KB)?
A KB is formed in the liver through the Krebs cycle, or the citric acid cycle. When there is no glycogen for the body to run off of, the pancreas releases glucagon. Glucagon is a catabolic hormone, since it is used to break down body tissues for energy. In our case glucagon is very important since it is used to convert free fatty acids into the energy substrate called a ketone. Ketones are free fatty acids broken down through a process that involves carnitine and glucagon. After the free fatty acids are processed in the liver the fats have been transformed into beta-hydroxybutyric and aceto-acetic acids, or, what you and I know them as, "ketones".
Does Being In The Metabolic State Of Ketosis Present Dangers?
In reality the benefits of the ketogenic diet heavily outweigh the few pit falls it may have. Some of the points of arguments are:
During the first few weeks of the ketogenic diet the body has to go through the "metabolic shift", as Mauro DiPasquale calls it. While going through this the body will experience a small degree of fatigue and brain fog, but once the body gets used to manufacturing ketones as the main energy substrate the body actually has more energy than it previously had, and you won't have to be fighting through all those low blood sugar crashes that your high carb meals previously gave you. Also when in ketosis, ketones are the preferred energy substrate for the brain over protein.
Blood lipid profile is also a concern on the ketogenic diet due to the staggering amounts of saturated fats in the diet, although the diet can be centered around healthy fats, what is not as fun as eating a egg and cheese omelet fried in butter with bacon on the side! The issue of blood lipid profile is experiencing much debate due to the fact that for some people following the ketogenic diet, they will experience a drop in cholesterol levels, while for some it will increase.
Another point is that since carbohydrates are so restricted during the no carbohydrate portion the issue of micronutrient deficiencies can occur. The best thing to do to avoid this is to make sure you take a high quality multi vitamin /mineral twice a day to insure that you are getting 100% of the daily value. Also supplementing with a fiber supplement is a good idea to make sure you plumbing doesn't get clogged, if you know what I mean. Another course of action one can take is to make sure that on the high carbohydrate period of the diet you consume adequate amounts of fibrous green vegetables, and also quality carbohydrate sources such as brown rice, squash, sweet potatoes, and whole-wheat pastas.
This last focus point is the danger of ketoacidosis. This occurs when the level of ketones in the blood gets out of control, this happens because ketones are acidic only as long as they are floating around waiting to be burned. If the level of ketones in the blood rises out of control it would lower the pH of the blood and this could result in death. BUT, this is not a concern for the non-diabetic whatsoever because for the non-diabetic blood sugar levels are kept low by our bodies and it will only allow so many ketones to be manufactured at one time. In the diabetic person blood sugar can rise as high as 300-2000mg/dl, where as normal being around 80-120. Also when this happens the low insulin to glucagon ratio causes ketogenesis to be stimulated, this is where the person can run into ketoacidosis.
What About The Anti Catabolic Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet?
Every reduced calorie diet is Catabolic, meaning that they can cause you to lose muscle. It's a fact! This is largely due to the fact that on a reduced calorie diet many of the anabolic hormones in the body are significantly reduced. Added to that most dieters do copious amounts of aerobic exercise when dieting which is a very good way to catabolize muscle. So the main thing we can try to do is lose the least amount of muscle possible when dieting, or even possibly rebuild lost tissue, which is where the carb-up comes in. But that will not be discussed in this chapter.
Other than hormonal reasons the main reason why catabolism occurs is because protein will be broken down, or catabolized, to make glucose. This is because the brain uses a boat load of glycogen, upwards of 25% of the body's glucose. Now when carbohydrates are restricted, the body will still need glucose for the brain, so it is forced to breakdown protein mostly from your own muscle tissue.
Now, ketosis is different because when in the state of ketosis the brain will prefer ketones over glucose. For the dieter this is very good because the body will not have to break down protein for energy. In turn the body will be forced to use its fat reserves, a.k.a. your love handles, for its energy. This is why ketosis is such a good method of dieting.
The premise of the diet is high protein (about 1- 1 1/2 gram per pound), moderate fat (about 1/2 g per lb) and low low carbs (no direct sources of carbs). During this diet, the brain goes into ketosis (it uses ketone bodies for energy-- fats) and thus the energy requirements by the body can almost all be supplied by fats (which you'll be taking in plenty of). The only activity that uses carbs will be the weight workout which may use 40grams per workout. You will get these 40g indirectly through the foods you'll be eating. As a backup, the cheat meal you'll be having once per week will provide a storehouse of glycogen (glucose) in case of emergency. So, you see, very little gluconeogenesis in the liver will be occurring. If we keep cortisol low (by
restricting STIMULANTS) we'll ensure that muscle is spared!
HAVE YOUR CHEAT MEAL ON THE SAME DAY EVERY WEEK, last meal of the
day so you dont cheat again.
Fiber helps burn fat! Everyone should take fiber 2x per day. Fiber actually helps increase the absorption of calcium.
When following my diet plan (which includes getting your brain into ketosis), there can be NO starchy carbs eaten!
For a 200lb man:
5 whole eggs (make sure to buy OMEGA-3 EGGS from the supermarket. They contain virtually NO saturated fat and tons of good OMEGA-3 fats); add another 4 egg whites to this (they don?t need to be the Omega-3 ones; you can use liquid egg whites)
SHAKE: 50g Whey Protein with 1 ? tablespoon of All Natural Peanut butter (no sugar)
"Lean Protein Meal": 8oz chicken with 1/2-cup cashew nuts (almonds, or walnuts)
SHAKE: 50g Whey Protein with 1 ? tablespoons of All Natural Peanut butter (no sugar added)
"Fatty Protein Meal": 8oz Salmon, Swordfish, or RED MEAT with a green salad (no tomatoes, carrots, or red peppers) with 1 tablespoon of Olive Oil or Macadamia nut oil and vinegar
SHAKE: 50g Whey with 1 ? tablespoon all natural peanut butter or 4 whole (Omega-3) eggs and 4 extra whites
For a 250lb+ man:
Meal 1 6 whole Omega-3 eggs
Meal 2 8oz chicken with 1/2 cup raw almonds
Meal 3 50g whey with 2 tablespoons all natural peanutbutter
Meal 4 8oz salmon with 1 cup asparagus with 1 tablespoon macadamia nut oil
Meal 5 50 g whey with 2 tablespoon PB
Meal 6 6 whole eggs
Remember, it takes 3-4 days to get into a strong ketosis where your brain is using ketone bodies (fats), instead of carbs, for energy. Be patient.
Many times I'll switch to an alternatiing diet where one day it will be protein/fat......then another protein/vegetables (very little fat). The great thing about the body and fat is that ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS can be stored in the muscle for several days, up to 2 weeks......therefore, once an adequate storehouse of Essential Fats are built up, the body can be "tortured" a little and it still won't give up muscle (that's assuming you're still taking in adequate protein. Protein can't be stored).
1oz almonds equals 6g carbs (2 of those grams are fiber) and 2oz equals 12g of carbs.
With the beef meal (any fatty protein meal), you should have the green salad with 1 tablespoon of Olive or Mac oil INSTEAD of the nuts. Only eat the nuts with the LEAN PROTEIN MEAL (chicken, turkey, lean fish)
The best fat sources come from the essential fatty acids-- Omega-6 and Omega-3's. Most of us get plenty of Omega-6s from cooking oils, ect..........however the Omega-3's are harder to get. I recommend WHOLE OMEGA-3 EGGS, FaTTY FISHS like SALMON and SWORDFISH and TUNA and MACKEREL, ALMONDS and WALNUTS have some OMEGA-3's (as well as OMEGA-6s). ANother great fat source is MONOUNSATURATES such as EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL and MACADAMIA NUT OIL.....they aren't essential but they are great for the metabolism (great source of energy) and they are extremely good for your heart.
You're not getting any indirect sources of carbs (just from the 1 spoonful of PB.... you may want to have at least one 1/3cup nuts meal. Remember, Olive or Macadamia nut oil is predominantly a MONOUNSATURATED FAT (good for the heart, but not essential)........ the nuts, and fish oil have the essential fats in them. Also, with regard to FLAX SEED OIL, the OMEGA-3 Fatty Acids found in them (alpha-linolenic acid) has a very poor conversion to DHA and EPA (Essential Omega-3 intermediates) in the HUMAN........therefore, you're much better off taking in FISH OILS (that already contain DHA/EPA) than FLAX SEED OIL.
Once fat loss slows, I always increase cardio first, then I increase the amount of fat burners (clen, cytomel, lipolyze).........After those other methods are exhausted, only then, do I play with the diet.
Always eat BEFORE lifting........never BETWEEN lifting and cardio.
The artificial sweetener itself (eg. aspartame, sucralose) wont cause a problem. It's what some companies complex it with. For example, EQUAL and SPLENDA combine their aspartame and sucrolose with 1g of maltodextrin........whereas, in diet drinks, they don't do that. So, diet drinks are okay, SPLENDA and EQUAL must be used in moderation (STEVIA BALANCE is fine though since they use inulin fiber instead of maltodextrin
-MCT's are a waste when you're dieting. If you're gonna use FATS for an energy source, they might as well serve a function in the body. MCTs are useless. They can only serve as a source of energy!
-Arginine is not going to do anything. It will DO something; just not dramatic.
CARDIO should be performed at a low intensity (under 120bpm heartrate). This will ensure that you use FAT as a fuelsource since as your heartrate increase, carbohydrates begin to become the preferred fuel of choice for the body. When on a low carb diet, you're body will break down muscle and turn that into carbs. Remember, Fat CANNOT be changed into carbs. Therefore, for bodybuilding, the rule of cardio should be LONG DURATION, LOW INTENSITY
never do less than 20 min per session
The BOTTOM LINE is that low intensity cardio (while you might need more of it) ensures that fat is utilized and muscle is spared (especially while on my high protein/moderate fat/low carb diety).
Admin edit. I found these variations for different weights, female, etc. I don't think Dave created them, but someone else using the diet's theory.
Variations of the Palumbo diet for certain individuals :
Meal #1: 5 whole eggs (Omega-3), 4 egg-whites (can be liquid egg-whites).
Meal #2: Shake: 50g Whey Protein with 1 ½ tablespoon of All Natural Peanut Butter (no sugar).
Meal #3: Lean protein meal: 8oz Chicken with ½ cup cashew nuts (or almonds, walnuts).
Meal #4: Shake: same as meal #2.
Meal #5: Fatty protein meal: 8oz Salmon, Swordfish, or Red Meat with a green salad (no tomatoes, carrots, or red peppers) with 1 tablespoon of Olive Oil or Macadamia Nut Oil and Vinegar.
Meal #6: Same as meal #2 and #4, or 4 whole (Omega-3) eggs and 4 extra egg-whites.
Meal #1: 6 whole (Omega-3) eggs.
Meal #2: 8oz chicken with ½ cup raw almonds.
Meal #3: 50g whey protein with 2 tablespoons all natural peanut butter.
Meal #4: 8oz salmon with 1 cup asparagus with 1 tablespoon macadamia nut oil.
Meal #5: same as meal #3.
Meal #6: 6 whole (Omega-3) eggs.
Meal #1: 2 whole (omega-3) eggs and 6 egg-whites.
Meal #2: 4oz chicken with 1/4 cup raw almonds.
Meal #3: 35g whey protein with 1 tablespoon all natural peanut butter.
Meal #4: 4oz salmon with 1 cup asparagus with 1 tablespoon macadamia nut oil.
Meal #5: same as meal #1 or meal #3.
100lb (lean body mass) female figure competitor
Meal #1: 2 whole omega-3 eggs and 4 egg whites.
Meal #2: 30g whey protein and 1 tablespoon natural peanut butter.
Meal #3: 6oz chicken and 1oz (1/8 cup) raw almonds.
Meal #4: same as meal #2.
Meal #5: 4oz salmon, 2 cups of spinach leaves, 1 teaspoon virgin olive oil and vinegar.
170lb male (153lbs LBM)
Meal #1: 3 whole omega-3 eggs, 3 egg-whites, 3 slices fat-free turkey.
Meal #2: 40g whey protein and 1 tablespoon olive oil.
Meal #3: 150g skinless chicken breast and 1 tablespoon soy and 1 tablespoon mustard and 30g almonds.
Meal #4: same as meal #2.
Meal #5: 200g top sirloin steak and 85g raw spinach and 1 tablespoon olive oil.
Meal #6: 2 whole omega-3 eggs, 1 can tuna.
160 lb male
Meal #1: 4 whole eggs, ¾ cup egg-whites, fish oil, primrose oil.
Meal #2: 7oz chicken, ¼ cup almonds.
Meal #3: 7oz salmon, 1 cup spinach.
Meal #4: same as meal #2.
Meal #5: 7oz lean ground beef, 1 cup spinach, 1 tablespoon olive oil.
Meal #6: 3 whole eggs, 1 cup egg-whites, fish oil, primrose oil.
185lb natty bb at 12%bf
Meal #1: 5 whole omega-3 eggs.
Meal #2: 7oz chicken with 1/3 cup raw almonds.
Meal #3: 40g whey protein with 1.5 tablespoons all natural peanut butter (post-workout meal).
Meal #4: 6oz salmon with 1 cup asparagus with 1 tablespoon macadamia nut oil.
Meal #5: 40g whey protein with 2 tablespoons all natural peanut butter.
Meal #6: 4 whole omega-3 eggs with 4 extra egg-whites.
176lb natty bb at 11-12%bf
Meal #1: 4 whole omega-3 eggs with 4 extra egg-whites.
Meal #2: 200g chicken with 1/3 cup raw almonds.
Meal #3: 40g whey protein with 1 tablespoon all natural peanut butter.
Meal #4: 200g red meat or salmon with 1 cup asparagus.
Meal #5: 40g whey protein with 1.5 tablespoons all natural peanut butter.
Meal #6: same as meal #1.
155lb male at 15%bf
Meal #1: 3 whole omega-3 eggs.
Meal #2: 5oz chicken with ¼ cup raw almonds.
Meal #3: 30g whey isolate with 1 tablespoon all natural peanut butter.
Meal #4: 7oz (93%) lean ground beef with 1 cup romaine lettuce (dressing: 3 teaspoons ev olive oil and 3 teaspoons balsamic vinegar) and 1 tablespoon flaxseed oil.
Meal #5: same as meal #3.
Meal #6: same as meal #1.
Meal #1: 5 whole eggs.
Meal #2: 8oz chicken breast and 1/3 cup almonds.
Meal #3: 50g whey protein isolate with 1.5 tablespoon natural peanut butter.
Meal #4: 8oz fish with 1/3 cup almonds.
Meal #5: 55g whey protein isolate with 1.5 tablespoon natural peanut butter (post workout).
Meal #6: same as meal #1.
172lbs at 11%bf with protein and veggies days incorporated
3X P-F, 2X P-V
Meal #1: 4 whole eggs with 4 egg-whites.
Meal #2: 6oz chicken (cooked) and 1/3 cup raw almonds.
Meal #3: 40g whey protein and 1.5 tablespoon all natural peanut butter.
Meal #4: 6oz red meat (cooked) with 1 cup asparagus.
Meal #5: same as meal #3.
Meal #6: same as meal #1.
Meal #1: 12 egg-whites.
Meal #2: 6oz chicken (cooked) and 1 cup asparagus.
Meal #3: 40g whey protein with water.
Meal #4: 6oz tuna and 1 cup asparagus.
Meal #5: same as meal #3.
Meal #6: same as meal #1.
These rules only work when adhered to in the strictest sense. If you give the rules 100% compliance you will get 100% of the effect. If you give a half assed effort then you get half assed results. I don’t mean to be blunt but I do mean to be honest and straight forward. Results only come to those who do what it takes to get them, not to those who looks for short cuts and magic pills.
This is not ment to be a "be all end all" list of reccomendations, it is simply a compilation of tactics I have been taught, adjusted, used and tested on many of my clients as well as myself. Other versions and opinions may exist, try it out for yourself and see what works for you alone.
Ketone bodies, from the breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl groups, are also produced during this state, and are burned throughout the body. Excess ketone bodies will slowly decarboxylate into acetone. That molecule is excreted in the breath and urine. When glycogen stores are not available in the cells (glycogen is primarily created when carbohydrates such as starch and sugar are consumed in the diet), fat (triacylglycerol) is cleaved to give 3 fatty acid chains and 1 glycerol molecule in a process called lipolysis. Most of the body is able to utilize fatty acids as an alternative source of energy in a process where fatty acid chains are cleaved to form acetyl-CoA, which can then be fed into the Krebs Cycle. It is important to note that acetyl-CoA can only enter the Krebs Cycle bound to oxaloacetate. When carbohydrate supplies are inadequate, however, the liver naturally converts oxaloacetate to glucose via gluconeogenesis for use by the brain and other tissues. When acetyl CoA does not bind with oxaloacetate, the liver converts it to ketones (or ketone bodies), leading to a state of ketosis. During this process a high concentration of glucagon is present in the serum and this inactivates hexokinase and phosphofructokinase-1 (regulators of glycolysis) indirectly, causing most cells in the body to use fatty acids as their primary energy source. At the same time, glucose is synthesized in the liver from lactic acid, glucogenic amino acids, and glycerol, in a process called gluconeogenesis. This glucose is used exclusively for energy by cells such as neurons and red blood cells.
Ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis or the less common alcoholic ketoacidosis), which is severe ketosis causing the pH of the blood to drop below 7.2. Ketoacidosis is a medical condition usually caused by diabetes and accompanied by dehydration, hyperglycemia, ketonuria and increased levels of glucagon. The high glucagon, low insulin serum levels signals the body to produce more glucose via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and ketone bodies via ketogenesis. High levels of glucose causes the failure of tubular reabsorption in the kidneys, causing water to leak into the tubules in a process called osmotic diuresis, causing dehydration and further exacerbating the acidosis.
Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects.
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is closely linked to the incidence of type II diabetes. It is found that effective management of body weight and changes to nutritional habits especially with regard to the carbohydrate content and glycemic index of the diet have beneficial effects in obese subjects with glucose intolerance. Previously we have shown that ketogenic diet is quite effective in reducing body weight. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. In this study the effect of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high blood glucose level is compared to those with normal blood glucose level for a period of 56 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 64 healthy obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, having high blood glucose level and those subjects with normal blood glucose level were selected in this study. The body weight, body mass index, blood glucose level, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 8, 16, 24, 48, and 56 weeks after the administration of the ketogenic diet. RESULTS: The body weight, body mass index, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea showed a significant decrease from week 1 to week 56 (P < 0.0001), whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Interestingly these changes were more significant in subjects with high blood glucose level as compared to those with normal blood glucose level. The changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study shows the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects following its long-term administration. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in addition to its therapeutic value, low carbohydrate diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese diabetic subjects.
Awesome! Gotta find some time to read through all of this. Is this the same as paleo?
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