The wicki article on AAS is one account of the issue.
Dr. Casey Butt has written a history of AAS in sports. I'll see if I can find it.
Cliffs: It was not until the mid to late 1950's that they were first tried for sports performance enhancement. This did not prove fruitful for the US athletes who subjects in the trial. It was early to mid 1960's that BB started employing them was some success.
Let me see if I can find the article.