<sigh> That seems like the beginning of an article that ends up with the everyday guy being in a state of paralysis by analysis. Science is great, but what is so wrong with a "lift big, eat big, grow big – it’s simple” approach?
The hardest thing I had to learn when I started lifting again was...keep it simple, heavy compound lifts, eat big, rest. Getting over the mental humps of "i have to do a 5-day bodypart split" and "i'll get fat if I eat that much" was the hardest part for me. Sure, there are tons of other questions, but if you can follow that simple plan, you've answered the most important questions.