You cannot "Confuse" a muscle. A muscle does not have a brain. See Steves earlier post about muscle adaption. That pretty much covers it for me.
Vince Gironda was a very smart man and ahead of his time. However, I stand by my statement that, you cannot confuse a muscle.
Albert Einstein was a very smart man as well. He put forth the idea of the, "Ether" of the universe. We know today that this is not true.
Time marches on and not everything stands the test of time.